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Archive for the ‘Polygon’ Category

Create UTFGrid Tiles from PostGIS Tables

without comments

I assume you’re where I was about a week ago. That is, you’ve heard of UTFGrid, and now you want to render your own UTFGrid tiles. Perhaps you found yourself looking at this thread over at GIS.SE, but you don’t want to jump into TileStache just now. Anyway if you’ve got a working installation of GDAL/OGR and Mapnik 2+, complete with Python bindings, I’ll show you what worked for me..

Because this is merely an adaptation of Matthew Perry’s original solution, I highly recommend considering his original blog entry on the topic, complete with discussion points and caveats, before proceeding further!

Once you’re ready, head over to GitHub and download some code, specifically,, and [1] You don’t actually need, but I snagged all three. To keep things simple put these files in the same folder.

Next, in that same directory, create a new Python file, I called mine

Where works entirely on shapefiles, accepts an OGR PostgreSQL connection string in place of a shapefile path. Fortunately the original OGR code didn’t change, but to use the Mapnik PostGIS driver I had to iterate over the PostgreSQL connection string and store the connection parameters so I could supply them a differently to Mapnik.

Finally, copy the following code and paste it into your new file. It’s basically the same as, but I changed shppath to pgconn and added some code to use a mapnik.PostGIS() datasource in place of a mapnik.Shapefile() datasource.

If you’re curious, the comment # ELR 2014.9.26: flags the few places I changed the original code.

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8  -*-
Author: Matthew Perry
License: BSD

Creates utfgrid .json tiles for the given polygon shapefile

Thx to Dane Springmeyer for the utfgrid spec and mapnik rendering code
and to  Klokan Petr Přidal for his MapTiler code

import globalmaptiles
import mapnik
import ogr
import os
from optparse import OptionParser, OptionError
    import simplejson as json
except ImportError:
    import json

def create_utfgrids(pgconn, minzoom, maxzoom, outdir, fields=None, layernum=0):

    # ELR 2014.9.26:
    # Original implementation pushed in a shapefile path.
    #ds = ogr.Open(shppath)
    ds = ogr.Open(pgconn)

    # ELR 2014.9.26:
    # Iterate over the PostgreSQL connection string and pull out values we need
    # to use Mapnik's PostGIS datasource constructor.
    pgConnARR = pgconn[3:].split(' ')
    for kvPair in pgConnARR:
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "host":
            nikHost = kvPair.split('=')[1]
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "port":
            nikPort = kvPair.split('=')[1]
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "user":
            nikUser = kvPair.split('=')[1]
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "password":
            nikPass = kvPair.split('=')[1]
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "dbname":
            nikDB = kvPair.split('=')[1]
        if kvPair.split('=')[0] == "tables":
            nikTable = kvPair.split('=')[1]

    print "WARNING:"
    print " This script assumes a polygon shapefile in spherical mercator projection."
    print " If any of these assumptions are not true, don't count on the results!"
    # TODO confirm polygons
    # TODO confirm mercator
    # TODO get layernum from command line
    layer = ds.GetLayer(layernum)
    bbox = layer.GetExtent()
    print ""
    print str(bbox)

    mercator = globalmaptiles.GlobalMercator()

    m = mapnik.Map(256,256)

    # Since grids are `rendered` they need a style
    s = mapnik.Style()
    r = mapnik.Rule()
    polygon_symbolizer = mapnik.PolygonSymbolizer(mapnik.Color('#f2eff9'))
    line_symbolizer = mapnik.LineSymbolizer(mapnik.Color('rgb(50%,50%,50%)'),0.1)
    m.append_style('My Style',s)

    print ""
    # ELR 2014.9.26:
    # Original implementation using shapefile..
    #ds = mapnik.Shapefile(file=shppath)

    # ELR 2014.9.26:
    # Parameterized PostGIS implementation..
    ds = mapnik.PostGIS(host=nikHost,port=nikPort,user=nikUser,password=nikPass,dbname=nikDB,table=nikTable)

    mlayer = mapnik.Layer('poly')
    mlayer.datasource = ds
    mlayer.styles.append('My Style')

    print ""
    if fields is None:
        fields = mlayer.datasource.fields()
        print "Fields were NONE. Using.."
        print fields
        print "Fields are USER PROVIDED. Using.."
        print fields
    print ""

    for tz in range(minzoom, maxzoom+1):
        print " * Processing Zoom Level %s" % tz
        tminx, tminy = mercator.MetersToTile( bbox[0], bbox[2], tz)
        tmaxx, tmaxy = mercator.MetersToTile( bbox[1], bbox[3], tz)
        for ty in range(tminy, tmaxy+1):
            for tx in range(tminx, tmaxx+1):
                output = os.path.join(outdir, str(tz), str(tx))
                if not os.path.exists(output):

                # Use top origin tile scheme (like OSM or GMaps)
                # TODO support option for TMS bottom origin scheme (ie opt to not invert)
                ymax = 1 << tz;
                invert_ty = ymax - ty - 1;

                tilefilename = os.path.join(output, "%s.json" % invert_ty) # ty for TMS bottom origin
                tilebounds = mercator.TileBounds( tx, ty, tz)
                #print tilefilename, tilebounds

                box = mapnik.Box2d(*tilebounds)
                grid = mapnik.Grid(m.width,m.height)
                utfgrid = grid.encode('utf',resolution=4)
                with open(tilefilename, 'w') as file:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    usage = "usage: %prog [options] shapefile minzoom maxzoom output_directory"
    parser = OptionParser(usage)
    parser.add_option("-f", '--fields', dest="fields", help="Comma-seperated list of fields; default is all")
    (options, args) = parser.parse_args()

    if len(args) != 4:
        parser.error("Incorrect number of arguments")

    pgconn = args[0]
    minzoom, maxzoom = int(args[1]), int(args[2])
    outdir = args[3]

    if os.path.exists(outdir):
        parser.error("output directory exists already")

    if options.fields:
        fields = options.fields.split(",")
        fields = None

    create_utfgrids(pgconn, minzoom, maxzoom, outdir, fields)


Once you’ve prepared, you can call it from the command line like this..

C:\xDev\utfgrids\ "PG:host= port=5432 user=postgres dbname=gis password=passw0rd tables=parcels_pmerc" 12 16 "C:/xGIS/tiles/utf" -f tms,owner_name

  • Hopefully the PostgreSQL connection string ("PG:host=..") makes sense.
  • 12 and 16 represent the minimum and maximum zoom levels to be rendered, respectively.
  • The directory “C:/xGIS/tiles/utf” is where your UTFGrid tiles will be saved.
  • And -f tms,owner_name,the_wkt represents a comma-separated list of data fields you want in your UTFGrid.


  • Both and require your geodata table to be in a Web Mercator projection (EPSG:3857)!
  • The script assumes a top-origin tile scheme, like OSM and others.
  • The script will only work with polygons.
  • While the OGR PostgreSQL connection string has a tables parameter, this implementation will only accept one table.
  • The script will create your target directory, in the example case, utf, and it will throw an error if you create this directory in advance.

[1] Many thanks to Matthew Perry, Klokan Petr Přidal, and Dane Springmeyer for their collective efforts and for sharing their work.

Written by elrobis

September 26th, 2014 at 1:26 pm

Convert Google Maps Polygon (API V3) to Well Known Text (WKT) Geometry Expression

with 7 comments

There’s dozens of reasons why you might want the Well Known Text (WKT) geometry expression for a Google Maps Polygon object.

Assuming you’re using the Google Maps API V3, and you’ve got a variable referencing your Polygon, I’ll suggest two approaches you can take to iterate over the paths and vertices in your Google Maps polygon and return the geometry expression as a Well Known Text string.

Add a Simple Utility Method to Your Project

Easy enough. Just add the following method to your project. Look below the method for an example of how you’d call it.

function GMapPolygonToWKT(poly)
 // Start the Polygon Well Known Text (WKT) expression
 var wkt = "POLYGON(";

 var paths = poly.getPaths();
 for(var i=0; i<paths.getLength(); i++)
  var path = paths.getAt(i);
  // Open a ring grouping in the Polygon Well Known Text
  wkt += "(";
  for(var j=0; j<path.getLength(); j++)
   // add each vertice and anticipate another vertice (trailing comma)
   wkt += path.getAt(j).lng().toString() +" "+ path.getAt(j).lat().toString() +",";
  // Google's approach assumes the closing point is the same as the opening
  // point for any given ring, so we have to refer back to the initial point
  // and append it to the end of our polygon wkt, properly closing it.
  // Also close the ring grouping and anticipate another ring (trailing comma)
  wkt += path.getAt(0).lng().toString() + " " + path.getAt(0).lat().toString() + "),";

 // resolve the last trailing "," and close the Polygon
 wkt = wkt.substring(0, wkt.length - 1) + ")";

 return wkt;

Here’s how you’d access the Well Known Text expression using the utility method:

// Assuming you've already instantiated "myPolygon" somewhere.
var wkt = GMapPolygonToWKT(myPolygon);

Extend Google’s Polygon Object Prototype with a ToWKT() Method

There’s nothing wrong with the first approach, but you might find it handy to extend Google’s Polygon object prototype, itself, to include a ToWKT() member function, which makes it even easier to get its Well Known Text. To do that, add the following JavaScript somewhere near the top of your code (caveat—this will need to be called after the Google Maps library has been loaded):

if (typeof google.maps.Polygon.prototype.ToWKT !== 'function')
 google.maps.Polygon.prototype.ToWKT = function()
  var poly = this;
  // Start the Polygon Well Known Text (WKT) expression
  var wkt = "POLYGON(";
  var paths = poly.getPaths();
  for(var i=0; i<paths.getLength(); i++)
   var path = paths.getAt(i);
   // Open a ring grouping in the Polygon Well Known Text
   wkt += "(";
   for(var j=0; j<path.getLength(); j++)
   // add each vertice, automatically anticipating another vertice (trailing comma)
   wkt += path.getAt(j).lng().toString() + " " + path.getAt(j).lat().toString() + ",";
   // Google's approach assumes the closing point is the same as the opening
   // point for any given ring, so we have to refer back to the initial point
   // and append it to the end of our polygon wkt, properly closing it.
   // Additionally, close the ring grouping and anticipate another ring (trailing comma)
   wkt += path.getAt(0).lng().toString() + " " + path.getAt(0).lat().toString() + "),";
  // resolve the last trailing "," and close the Polygon
  wkt = wkt.substring(0, wkt.length - 1) + ")";
  return wkt;

If you prefer the second approach, you can get the Well Known Text expression like this:

// Assuming you've already instantiated "myPolygon" somewhere.
var wkt = myPolygon.ToWKT();

Written by elrobis

June 6th, 2014 at 10:44 am

PostGREsql/PostGIS Implementation of Google’s Encoded Polyline Algorithm

with 9 comments

[Edit 30 Jan, 2014]

I added an additional PostGREsql method to perform Polygon encoding by concatenating polygon geometries (delimiter: †) and their inner rings (delimiter: ‡) together into one massive encoded block of ring features. I also provided an example JavaScript method demonstrating how to bring the amalgamated polygon feature encodings into your Google Map.

By some uncanny twist of the fates, I’ve elected to use, had to use, and/or been asked to develop applications that use Google Maps ASCII Encoded Polyline expressions. In previous encounters, I’ve used a PHP class to handle the encoding task, and most recently I wrote a Python method to decode these expressions so that I could return a 3rd-party’s encoded geometries to WKT and import them into a spatially aware database.

So far so good.

However one thing has always bugged me about using the PHP solution–I don’t like using a piece of middleware to handle what I consider to be a responsibility of the data layer. Mark McClure’s page, which is basically the seminal authority on this topic, provides external links to implementations for Perl, Ruby, PHP (note: I prefer the PHP class linked, above), Java, and Mathematica. Also, by searching Stack Overflow, you can find implementations of the algorithm in both C# and VB.Net. But for all my efforts searching, I could never dredge up an implementation for either MySQL or PostGREsql/PostGIS. Bummer.

Looking up, it seems version 2.2 of PostGIS might include some built-in Google encoding conversion methods. While this is cool enough for a hat tip, unfortunately, it’s too inconvenient to wait that long, and even then, there’s no guarantee the implementation will work the way I expect with complex Polygon geometries; for instance, maybe it will encode only the exterior ring of Polygons, ignoring MultiPolygons completely, etc. For that matter, it’s equally possible there could be some bugs. So with this said, and even though the previously-mentioned PHP implementation does the job, my boss was cool-enough to let me take a crack at implementing the algorithm as a PostGREsql/PostGIS function, and then share the results with the world. Since some initial testing confirms my PostGIS implementation works, I’ll just post the code parts and hope others find it useful.

For what it’s worth, if anyone finds a bug or has recommendations for improvements, please don’t hesitate to drop me a line.


Sample query calling the first encoding function on the EXTERIOR RING of Polygon geometries:
(Also works on single-part LINESTRING features.)

 * Note that the encoding method can accept a LINESTRING only, which
 * is the geometry type used to represent the ring parts of a Polygon.
 * To help understand this, and why, please see the trailing discussion
 * section, which elaborates on this situation further.
  GoogleEncodeLine(ST_ExteriorRing(wkb_geometry)) as Google
  FROM polygons_wgs84
  WHERE ST_GeometryType(wkb_geometry) = 'ST_Polygon'
  LIMIT 10 ;


[Added 30 Jan, 2014]

Sample query calling the second encoding function on Polygon and MultiPolygon geometries:
(Preserves multi-part polygons and their inner-ring parts, a.k.a. “holes”.)

 * This encoding method will accept Polygon and MultiPolygon geom types.
 * The output returned is an amalgamation of Polyline encodings, where
 * individual geometries and their interior rings are concatenated
 * together using string delimiters, †, and ‡, respectively.
  GoogleEncodePolygon(wkb_geometry) as GooglePolygon
  FROM polygons_wgs84
  LIMIT 10 ;


Implementation functions to execute/save in your PostGREsql instance:

[Added 30 Jan, 2014]

 * Pass in either a Polygon or MultiPolygon geometry. Returns
 * an array of ASCII-encoded Polygon feature parts, including
 * multi-part geometries and their interior rings.
 ng INT;        -- Store number of Geometries in the Polygon.
 g INT;         -- Counter for the current geometry number during outer loop.
 g2 GEOMETRY;   -- Current geometry feature isolated by the outer loop.
 nr INT;        -- Store number of internal ring parts in the Polygon.
 r INT;         -- Counter for the current inner-ring part.
 r1 GEOMETRY;   -- Exterior ring part isolated BEFORE the inner loop.
 r2 GEOMETRY;   -- Inner-ring part isolated within the inner loop.
 gEncoded TEXT; -- Completed Google Encoding.
 gEncoded = '';
 ng = ST_NumGeometries(g1);
 g = 1;
     g2 = ST_GeometryN(g1, g);
     if g > 1 then gEncoded = gEncoded || chr(8224); END IF;
     -- Get ExteriorRing now; if there are any holes, get them later in the loop..
     r1 = ST_ExteriorRing(g2);
     gEncoded = gEncoded || GoogleEncodeLine(r1);
     nr = ST_NRings(g2);
     if nr > 1 then
       -- One (1) is because interior rings is one-based.
       -- And nr-1 is because ring count includes the boundary.
       FOR r IN 1..(nr-1) BY 1 LOOP
         r2 = ST_InteriorRingN(g2, r);
         gEncoded = gEncoded || chr(8225) || GoogleEncodeLine(r2);
       END LOOP;
     END IF;
 RETURN gEncoded;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


 * First of two methods. Pass in a geometry (LINESTRING only).
 * Returns ASCII-encoded point array for use in Google Maps.
  p INT; np INT;
  deltaX INT;
  deltaY INT;
  enX VARCHAR(255);
  enY VARCHAR(255);
  gEncoded TEXT;
  gEncoded = '';
  np = ST_NPoints(g);

  IF np > 3 THEN
    g = ST_SimplifyPreserveTopology(g, 0.00001);
    np = ST_NPoints(g);

  pt1 = ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(0, 0),4326);

    pt2 = ST_PointN(g, p);
    deltaX = (floor(ST_X(pt2)*1e5)-floor(ST_X(pt1)*1e5))::INT;
    deltaY = (floor(ST_Y(pt2)*1e5)-floor(ST_Y(pt1)*1e5))::INT;
    enX = GoogleEncodeSignedInteger(deltaX);
    enY = GoogleEncodeSignedInteger(deltaY);
    gEncoded = gEncoded || enY || enX;

    pt1 = ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(ST_X(pt2), ST_Y(pt2)),4326);
RETURN gEncoded;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


 * Second of two methods. Accepts a signed integer (LON or LAT
 * by 1e5) and returns an ASCII-encoded coordinate expression.
  e VARCHAR(255);
  s BIT(32);
  b BIT(6);
  n INT;
 e = '';
 s = (c::BIT(32))<<1;

 IF s::INT < 0 THEN
   s = ~s;
   END IF;

 WHILE s::INT >= B'100000'::INT LOOP
   b = B'100000' | (('0'||substring(s, 28, 5))::BIT(6));
   n = b::INT + 63;
   e = e || chr(n);
   s = s >> 5;
 e = e || chr(s::INT+63);

$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;


[Added 30 Jan, 2014]

JavaScript method demonstrating how to add Polygon encodings to a Google Map object:
(This client implementation works for either the single or the multi-part polygons.)

 * JavaScript! Pass-in an encoded text block created by either
 * PostGIS method, GoogleEncodePolygon() or GoogleEncodeLine(),
 * and render it in your Google Map object. If you don't want
 * the map to zoom to each rendering, just remove the "bounds"
 * variable and any references to it.
function renderEncoded(encoded_path)
   var bounds = new google.maps.LatLngBounds();
   var $encodedGeoms = encoded_path.split("†");
   for (var i=0; i<$encodedGeoms.length; i++)
       var encodedGeom = $encodedGeoms[i];
       var $encodedRings = encodedGeom.split("‡");
       var polyPaths = [];
       for (var j=0; j<$encodedRings.length; j++)
           var ptarray = google.maps.geometry.encoding.decodePath($encodedRings[j]);
       var polygonObject = new google.maps.Polygon(
         paths: polyPaths,
         strokeColor: '#890000',
         strokeOpacity: 1.0,
         strokeWeight: 2


And some additional discussion..

There are two “gotchas” when it comes to implementing the encoding algorithm with respect to Polygons:

1) Polygons, as geometries, can be composed of many rings. The outer ring is considered to be the boundary, and various inner rings are often called “holes”. So this is a specified, understood, and accepted built-in many-to-one relationship between polygons and their internal ring geometries.

And 2) It’s not rare to find polygon tables containing both Polygon and MultiPolygon data types. I think this happens because ESRI allows it, and so in an effort to play well with others, other GIS systems have accommodated it. At least, I know this is true for MySQL and PostGIS.

Here’s why this makes trouble–Google’s encoding algorithm is only intended to represent individual point arrays as a singular geometry. Basically, as long as your first point equals your last point, it’s considered to be a closed geometry, and you can add it and render it in a Google Map as a polygon. The algorithm itself isn’t designed to represent nested arrays, which would be necessary to render either a Polygon with “holes” or a MultiPolygon, which could potentially define many polygons with holes of their own! As such, I suspect there could be considerable disagreement as to how a Polygon-to-Google-Encoded method should actually handle Polygons..

The only solutions I can imagine for this problem would require “faking” a one-to-many relationship by perhaps delimiting together several encodings to account for MultiPolygons and/or single feature Polygons with interior rings. But this starts to get weird. So to keep things somewhat simple for the sake of the post, I chose to stay true to the algorithm’s intent and return a single encoded geometry expression from my method. And the sample query demonstrates this by calling the method against the outermost ring (i.e. the boundary) of a Polygon geometry type, which PostGREsql regards as a LineString, anyway.

[Added 30 Jan, 2014]

Since I wanted to handle the more complex geometries, I wrote the wrapper method GoogleEncodePolygon(), to first iterate over ST_NumGeometries() and gain access to any multi-part features, then second, iterate over ST_NRings() using ST_InteriorRingN()–you could also do this using ST_DumpRings()–and gain access to any interior rings of the Polygon geometries, themselves. Then, for each ring part, I call GoogleEncodeLine(), and concatenate together all those expressions into one massive block of “compound” expressions. I chose to delimit each geometry encoding using an extra-special character that would never be used by Google’s algorithm; for example chr(8224), which corresponds to “†”. I then further delimit the internal ring parts using another special character, chr(8225), which corresponds to “‡”, and return all these concatenated together as a compound encoding expression. Then, on the client-side (a JavaScript example is provided above), I merely split the compound expression against my delimiters, loop over the various expressions, and add them to the map individually. Note if you are attaching attributes to your features, you’ll need to remember to include them explicitly to each unique Polygon added to your map.

Written by elrobis

January 27th, 2014 at 12:20 pm

PostGIS: query all multipolygon parcels with at least one hole

without comments

I was writing some code to iterate over Well Known Text expressions for polygon features, and I decided I needed to test the most complex edge-case I could think of–multipolygon geometries where at least one of the bound polygons has a hole (i.e. an interior ring).

I ended up with the following query. This seems like the kind of thing I’ll want to reuse later, so I’m noting it here. For good measure, I also use a rudimentary technique to sort the output with the most complicated geometries in the table at the top of the list. Basically, the more “text” it takes to describe the geometry using Well Known Text, the larger and more complex I figure it must be!

  SomePrimaryId,   /* your primary key, i.e. ogc_fid, etc. */
  SomeUniqueId,    /* your descriptive id, i.e. a parcel number */
  ST_NumGeometries(wkb_geometry) AS num_geoms,
  ST_NRings(wkb_geometry) AS num_rings,
  ST_AsText(ST_Centroid(wkb_geometry)) AS center,
  Char_Length(ST_AsText(wkb_geometry)) AS len,
  ST_AsText(wkb_geometry) AS wkt
FROM SomePolygonTable
  ST_NumGeometries(wkb_geometry) > 1
  ST_NRings(wkb_geometry) > ST_NumGeometries(wkb_geometry)
ORDER BY Char_Length(ST_AsText(wkb_geometry)) ASC ;


Just for the sake of promoting caution, I’m not certain this is a definitive approach for identifying the largest geometry in a table, as the length of the binary representation and the length of the readable text representation do not correspond one-to-one. Moreover, a feature could have more vertices that required less precision to express (fewer decimal position), than a geometry with fewer vertices that needed more precision, and then you have to ask, which is bigger, fewer vertices and more text, or more vertices that coincidentally did not require as much text? My conclusion is, the “most complicated geometry” is probably relative to the one asking the question. However for my purposes, this was close enough to put the most complicated stuff at the top of the list.

Written by elrobis

November 8th, 2013 at 10:26 am